015975
RODRIGUES, Luís Nuno
To The "Top of the Mountain" and "Down to the Valley": the United States and Portugal during the Kennedy presidency [Do "Topo da Montanha" ao "Fundo do Vale": os Estados Unidos e Portugal durante a presidência de John F. Kennedy]

Introduction

1

 

I. The Formation of the Alliance: Portugal and the United States, 1944-1960

7

 

1. Salazar's "New State"

7

 

2. The Colonial Empire

14

 

3. World War II: Forging a New Alliance

23

 

4. Portugal and the United States in the Cold War (1946-1960)

31

 

II. The Great Crisis

47

 

1. A New African Policy

48

 

2. Domestic Challenges to Oliveira Salazar

61

 

3. The Outbreak of the Crisis

86

 

4 . The Task Force on Portuguese Territories

122

 

5. Confronting the Portuguese

154

 

5.1 Contacts with African Nationalists

154

 

5.2 The Sale of Military Equipment

188

 

5.3 In the United Nations

213

 

6. The Beginning of the End: the Loss of Goa

225

 

III. Reasons for Retreat

247

 

1. Realism and Pragmatism: "A few acres of asphalt"

249

 

2. Angola or the Azores?: Seizing "this dilemma by the horns."

264

3. "Troubles on the Hill."

297

4. Portuguese Intransigence

318

4.1 The War

319

4.2 Reforms for "Foreign Consumption"

334

4.3 Salvage and Lee: Putting the Events in their "true and proper perspective"

345

4.4 The Azores Negotiations: the Portuguese "Trump Card"

359

5. "Proudly alone"?

393

IV. The "Retreat"

437

1. Public Declarations

438

2. "Today's Terrorist Is Tomorrow's Statesman."

454

3. The "Gray Area" of the American Arms Policy

490

4. Reversal in the United Nations

524

5. Financial Aid

578

6. Ball's Mission to Lisbon

588

V. Epilogue: 1964-1968

607

Conclusions

625

Sources and Bibliography

639

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